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gurbwxI dy Su`D aucwrn leI ivAwkrixk syDW dI swrQikqw qy mh`qv (ig. jgqwr isMG jwck)

jugo-jug At`l DMn DMn sRI gurU gRMQ swihb jI mhwrwj ivKy ies At`l scweI nUM pRvwn kIqw igAw hY ik mhWpurK prmwqmw dI AMimRq bwxI nUM ivcwrn vwly mnuK ivrly hI imldy hn [ pr, ieh vI ie`k Atl scweI hY ik ijhVy koeI ivcwrdy hn, auh igAwnvwn gurmuK bx ky sÍ-srUp iv`c itk jWdy hn [ Bwv, hukmI bMdy bx ky Akwl purKu iv`c lIn ho jWdy hn [ ikauNik, gurbwxI vIcwr duAwrw auh r`bI hukm nUM bu`J ky Awpxy AMdroN iv`Q pwaU haumY nUM imtw lYNdy hn [ gurvwk hY :

 

bwxI ibrlau bIcwrsI ; jy ko, gurmuiK hoie ]

ieh bwxI mhwpurK kI ; inj Gir vwsw hoie ] {AMg 935}

 

spSt hY ik sicAwr gurmuK mn`uK bx ky ijaUx leI gurbwxI nUM ivcwrnw bhuq AvSk hY [ pr, ieh vI ie`k At`l scweI hY ik gurbwxI dI ivcwr kridAW gurmqI jIvn dI shI syD qdoN hI iml skdI hY, jy AsIN gurbwxI nUM gurbwxI dI ivAwkrixk qy isDWqk rOSnI iv`c aucwrIey qy vIcwrIey [ ikauNik, jy gurbwxI dI lg-mwqR inXmwvlI qy vwk vMf dI ivsrwimk jwxkwrI nw hovy qW ArQW dy AnrQ ho jWdy hn ; jo swnUM gurmqI syD bKSx dI QW Btkwaux dw kwrn bx skdy hn [ iehI kwrx sI ik sRI gurU hirgoibMd swihb jI mhwrwj ny BweI gopwlw jI nUM jpujI swihb dy SuD pwT krn bdly GoVy dI b^iSS kIqI sI [ Aqy “krqy kI imiq krqw jwxY, kY jwxY guru sUrw ]” quk iv`c ‘kY’ dI QW ‘ky’ dw ASuD aucwrn krn vjoN is`K nUM sRI gurU goibMd isMG jI mhwrwj ny krVI qwVnw kIqI sI [ ikauNik, ‘kY’ dw ArQ hY : jW Aqy ‘ky’ dw ArQ hY : kI ?

 

igAwnI cMdw isMG jI dy Sigrd pMfq igAwnI hzwrw isMG jI (BweI vIr isMG jI dy nwnw), jo Awpxy Awp nUM BweI mnI isMG jI dI sMpRdwie nwl sMbMiDq d`sdy sn, ny sMn 1897-98 ƒ jYqsrI dI vwr dy tIky dI BUimkw dy AMq ivc gurbwxI ivAwkrx dI loV bwry kuJ Sbd ies qrHW AMikq kIqy hn :

“ieh g`l p`kI hY ik vXwkrx ArQ krny ivc bhuq kMm idMdw hY Ar mnGVq ArQ qy AnykW qrHW dIAW iK`cW ƒ jo lokIN Awpo Awpxy mqlb leI mwrdy hn, rok pw idMdw hY Ar ArQ dy AnrQ nhIN hox idMdw [ BwvyN pMjwbI bolI Xw sMsikRq dy vXwkrx dy sUqR hr QW nhIN vrqy jw skdy, pr jy guxI jn imhnq krn qW sRI gurU gRMQ swihb jI dw vKrw vXwkrn bx skdw hY, ikauNik mhwrwj dI bwxI AkwS dy qwirAW vw|UM TIk Ar idRVH inXm ivc cldI hY, BwvyN iek Axjwx purK ƒ AkwS qwry iKlrI hoeI ryq qoN kuJ vDIk nhIN Bwsdy [”

BweI swihb BweI rxDIr isMG jI dI sMn 1954 ivc CpI pusqk ‘gurbwxI dIAW lgW mwqRW dI ivl`Kxqw’ dI BUimkw ivc aunHW duAwrw ilKy Sbd vI gurbwxI ivAwkrx qy inXmwvlI dI loV bwry swK Brdy hn [ “gurbwxI AMdr AweIAW lgW-mwqRW siqgurU dI AgwD nyq Anuswr Aijhy gurmiq AsUlW b`Dy (sY~t) inXmW AMdr Aijhy soBnIk, moqIAW vW|UM jVIAW hoeIAW hn ik ienHW qoN ibnW iksy vI gurvwk pMkqI dw Bwv bxdw hI nhIN, ADUrw hI rihMdw hY, pUrw huMdw hI nhIN [ gurbwxI dw q`q AwSwvI Bwv ienHW lgW-mwqRW AMdr hI gupq hY Aqy AijhI q`q mrXwdw AMdr guMPq hY ik smgR sRI gurU gRMQ swihb dI bwxI AMdr iek rs inXm proqw pUrq sMDUrq hY [ ivl`KxqwmeI vwDw ieh hY ik ienHW lgW-mwqRW AMdr inXmq hoey gurbwxI dy Bwv ie`k qoN Anyk nhIN ho skdy [ ie`k gur-vwk pMkqI dw Bwv ie`ko hI rihMdw hY[”

sRI Akwl q^q swihb jI dy swbkw jQydwr igAwnI juigMdr isMG vydWqI jI, siqkwrXog igAwnI gurbcn isMG jI Kwlsw iBMfrWvwly dy ividAwrQI rhy hn [ aunHW ny SRomxI gurduAwrw pRbMDk kmytI sRI AMimRqsr v`loN pRkwiSq hox vwly julweI 2012 dy gurmiq pRkwS iv`c ‘gurbwxI dI lg-mwqR inXmwvlI : Koj qy sMBwvnw’ dy isrlyK hyT ‘Kwlsw’ jI dy ivcwrW nUM ieauN pRgt kIqw hY [ pMnw 189 dy Sbd “kr kir thl ; rsnw gux gwvau ]… 4]51]120]” dI ivAwiKAw krdy smyN ieh kih rhy hn ik “ ‘kr’ Sbd mukqy nwl, h`QW dw vwck hY, ‘r’ ƒ ishwrI nwl ikirAw dw vwck hY, ‘kr kir’ ivAwkrx vI ivcy riKAw ipAw hY[”

gurbwxI dI lg mwqRI inXmwvlI dy ivSy qy kuJ hyT ilKIAW pusqkW vrnx Xog hn [ ijvyN ‘SbdWiqk lgW mwqRW dy gu`Jy Byd’ ipRM. qyjw isMG jI, ‘gurbwxI ivAwkrx’ pRo. swihb isMG jI, ‘gurbwxI dIAW lgW mwqRW dI ivl`Kxqw’ BweI swihb BweI rxDIr isMG jI, ‘nvIn gurbwxI ivAwkrx’ ig. hrbMs isMG jI Aqy ‘gurbwxI dw srl ivAwkrx-boD’ BweI joigMdr isMG jI qlvwVw Awidk[

 

pRoPYsr swihb isMG jI hurW iliKAw hY ik dsMbr 1920 nUM sRI gurU qyg bhwdr swihb jI dy ShIdI gurpurb smyN ^wlsw skUl gujrWvwly dy gurduAwry iv`c AKMf pwT kridAW do iqMn qukW dI iv`Q ’qy hI l&z ‘sbd’ iqMn rUpW iv`c Aw igAw – ‘sbdu’ ‘sbid’ ‘sbd’ [ suqy hI ieh i^Awl myry mn iv`c pYdw hoieAw ik ie`ko hI l&z dy ieh qRY v`Kry v`Kry rUp hn [ AYsw ikauN ? gurU ny imhr kIqI qy kuJ sUJ pY geI [ auhI lgW-mwqRW ijnHW vl pihlW kdy iDAwn nhIN sI id`qw, hux ^ws loVINdIAW jwpx l`gIAW [ bs, ieQoN hI ‘gurbwxI ivAkrx’ pusqk dw mu`F b`Jw [

auuprokq swrI vIcwr dw swrMS ieh hY ik ijvyN swieMsdwn ivigAwnIAW ny qrl jW Tos vsqUAW nUM bnwaux dy inXm Awpxy koloN nhIN GVy, kudrq dy srb-ivAwpk vrqwry iv`coN l`By hn [ iqvyN hI gurbwxI ivAwkrx dIAW pusqkW ilKx dw aupkwr krn vwly ivdvwn s`jxW ny ivAwkrixk inXm Awp nhIN GVy [ sgoN, sRI gurU gRMQ swihb jI dI AMdrlI AMimRq bwxI nUM Koj Koj ky l`By hn [ ikauNik, gurbwxI nUM SrDw sihq ivcwridAW auh ies nqIjy ’qy phuMc gey sn ik sRI gurU gRMQ swihb jI mu`Fly srUp ‘poQI swihb’ dI sMpwdnW vyly, sRI gurU Arjn swihb jI mhwrwj ny BweI swihb BweI gurdws jI pwsoN gurbwxI nUM kuJ ivSyS ivAwkrixk inXmW Anuswr ilKvwieAw hY [ gurbwxI sbMDI BulyiKAW qoN bcwaux leI ijQy kuJ ivSyS sUcnwvW drj krvweIAW hn [ auQy, AMkW Aqy l&zW dy Su`D aucwrn leI ivSyS ivAwkrixk syDW vI bKSIAW hn [ loV qW aunHW inXmW nUM l`Bx qy smJx dI hY, qW jo aunHW muqwibk gurbwxI dw aucwrn S`uD ho sky [

sRI gurU gRMQ swihb jI mhwrwj dw ivcwrpUrvk pwT krdy hoey AsIN drSn krdy hW ik ijvyN rwgb`D bwxIAW dy isrlyKW iv`c ‘mhlw’ Aqy ‘Gru’ l&zW nwl ihMdisAW iv`c ilKy AMkW dy S`uD aucwrn leI, AKrW iv`c ‘pihlw’, ‘dUjw’ qy ‘qIjw’ ilK ky syD bKSI geI hY ik ienHW AMkW nUM ie`k, do jW iqMn nhIN bolxw [ pihlw, dUjw qy qIjw bolxw hY [ ikauNik, ieh krmvwck sMiKAk ivSySx hn [ iqvyN hI gurbwxI dI ilKweI AMdr keI l&zW nUM ie`k QW ’qy ibMdI jW it`pI qoN ibnW iliKAw hoieAw hY qy dUjI QW aunHW hI l&zW nUM ibMdI qy it`pI sihq iliKAw hoieAw hY [ iesy qrHW keI l&z pYrW iv`c ilKy ‘h’ qoN ibnW hn Aqy keI QweIN aunHW hI l&zW dy pYrW iv`c ‘h’ AMikq kIqw hoieAw hY [ gurbwxI dI ivAwkrixk soJI r`Kx vwly ivdvwnW dw kQn hY ik gurU swihbwn ny AYsI AgvweI gurbwxI dy SuD aucwrn leI bKSI [ aunHW dI ie`Cw sI ik l&zW nUM ArQW muqwibk S`uD aucwrn leI ibMdI, it`pI, ADk qy pYr iv`c ‘h’ Awidk loV Anuswr lgw ilAw jwvy [

ijvyN isrlyKW iv`cly mhlw l&z qoN syD lY ky ‘slok mÚ 1’ {AMg 83}, ‘mÚ 2’ {AMg 83}, ‘mÚ 3’ {AMg 84} vrgy sMkyqk isrlyKW iv`c vI hr QW ‘mhlw’ aucwrn kIqw jWdw hY Aqy ‘mhlw’ jW ‘mÚ’ l&zW nwl ihMdisAW iv`c ilKy krmvwck sMiKAk ivSySx AMkW pRqI bKSIAW kuJ ku syDW qoN rOSnI lY kyY hr QW mhlw pihlw, dUjw, qIjw, cOQw, pMjvW qy nOvW boilAw jWdw hY [ iqvyN hI QW prQWA l&zW nUM l`gIAW ibMdIAW, it`pIAW qy pYrIN AKrW qoN syD lY ky, aus SRyxI dy bwkI l&zW nUM vI hornI QweIN ausy rUp iv`c aucwirAw jwey [ ijvyN :

 

1 - jo quDu BwvY, sweI BlI kwr ]  {jpujI AMg 3}

2 - sweI nwmu Amolu, kIm n koeI jwxdo ] {AMg 81 }

3 – hiB kUVwvy kMm, ieksu sweI bwhry ] {AMg 709}

 

quk nMbr (1) iv`c ‘sweI’ l&z dw ArQ hY : auh AQvw auhI, qy aucwrn hY ibMdI rihq ‘sweI’ [ pr, quk nMbr (2) Aqy (3) iv`c ‘sweI’ l&z dw ArQ hY : mwlk AkwlpurKu, qy aucwrn hY ‘sweIN’ [ AijhI syD swnUM gurbwxI ivcoN hI imldI hY, jdoN Bgq PrId swihb dy slok pVHdy hoey “sWeIN myrY cMgw kIqw nwhI q hM BI dJW Awih ]” {AMg 1378} dI quk pVHdy hW, ijs iv`c ‘sWeIN’ l&z ibMdI sihq AMikq hY [

‘gurbwxI pwT drSn’ pusqk dI ATvIN AYfISn dy pMnw 412 ’qy igAwnI gurbcn isMG ‘^wlsw’ iBMfrW vwilAW ny quk nMbr (3) dy ieauN drSn krvwey hn :

hiB kUVwvy kMm ; ieksu ‘sweI’ bwhry ] (sweIN bolo)

 

gurbwxI AMdr nWv (Noun) l&z nUM bhuvcn bnwaux leI aus dy AMq iv`c Awm qOr qy ibMdI sihq kMnw lgwieAw jWdw hY [ ijvyN :

  • crn kml, BgqW min vuTy ] {AMg 109}
  • soeI iDAweIAY jIAVy, isir swhW pwiqswhu ] {AMg 44}

3-kIqw ijso hovY, pwpW mlo DovY ; so ismrhu prDwnu hy ] {AMg 1008}

 

pr, iehI L&z hornI keI QweIN ibMdI rihq imldy hn [ ijvyN :

 

(a) - nwnk Bgqw sdw ivgwsu ] {jpujI AMg 2}

(A) – so pwiqswhu swhw pwiqswihbu nwnk rhxu rjweI ] {jpujI AMg 6}

(e) – BrIAY miq pwpw kY sMig ] {jpujI AMg 4}

 

spSt hY ik auprlIAW (1), (2) qy (3) nMbr vrgIAW qukW iv`cly l&z siqgurU jI ny AgvweI leI audwhrx vjoN vrqy hn, qW ik aunHW qoN syD lY ky ies SRyxI dy (a), (A) qy (e) vrgIAW qukW iv`cly bwkI swry bhuvcnI nWv rUp l&zW nUM ibMdIAW sihq aucwrn kIqw jwvy [ ijvyN guris`Kw, srw, bgw, BweIAw, cotw, vifAweIAw, cMigAweIAw, birAweIAw, kItw, AKrw, kwdIAw, rwgw Awid [ ikauNik, ieh swry bhuvcn hn [

iehI kwrx hY ik jQydwr igAwnI juigMdr isMG ‘vydWqI’ jI nUM gurbwxI ivAwkrx dw mh`qv prgt krn leI ilKxw ipAw ik “ A`j dIAW keI siqkwrq sMpRdwvW qy kuJ ivdvwn gurbwxI dI inXmwvlI mMnx qoN ienkwrI hI nhIN sgoN gwhy-bgwhy byloVw ivvwd vI KVHw krdy hn [ kuJ ku SrDwlU vIrW dw ivcwr hY ik gurbwxI dI ilKweI suqMqr hY Aqy iksy inXm dy ADIn nhIN [ aunHW dw gurbwxI pRqI siqkwr qy SrDw mubwirk hY, pr gurbwxI dI ilKweI dw inXm-pUrvk hoxw gurbwxI dI gOrvqw ƒ GtwauNdw hrigz nhIN, sgoN vDwauNdw hY [

gurbwxI dy do rUp hn—Bwvwqimk Aqy vrxwqimk [ gurbwxI dw Bwvwqimk rUp gupq hY, jo iblkul mOilk Aqy suqMqr hY[ gurbwxI dw vrxwqimk rUp pRgt hY qy ies dw sMbMD gurbwxI dI ilKx-qknIk nwl hY [ ieh qknIk b`JvyN nymW Anuswr hY qy ies ivc koeI sMdyh nhIN ik ieh ‘b`JvyN’ nym iksy hor bolI jW mn`uK dy bxwey ivAwkrx dy ADIn nhIN, sgoN suqMqr hn [ ieh nym Awpxy Awp ivc ivl`Kx hn qy ienHW dy inrmwqw gurU swihbwn Awp hI hn [ r`bI igAwn ƒ sDwrn jigAwsUAW au~qy AwSkwrw (pRgt) krn leI ieh sujwn siqgurW dI mhwn dyx hn [ ienHW dI hoNd qoN ienkwr krnw s`c A`gy A`KW mItx dy qul hY [ loV hY ienHW inXmW ƒ smJx dI Aqy smJ ky is`K sMgqW ivc pRcwrn dI, qW jo gurbwxI dy guhj Aqy Amu`ly Bwv shI rUp ivc smJy jw skx [” (dyKo : gurmiq pRkwS, julweI 2012)

DMnvwdI hW ‘SRI gurU gRMQ swihb ieMstIicaUt mYlbrn’ dy, jo sRI Akwl q^q swihb, AMimRqsr jI dy jQydwr Aqy dyS ivdyS dIAW sUJvwn is`K sMgqW dI hwridk ie`Cw pUrqI leI, gurbwxI sbMDI auprokq iksm dI swrI smgrI rIkwrf krvw ky Aqy vK vK BwSwvW rwhIN ikqwbI rUp iv`c Cpvw ky, Gr Gr qk phuMcwx leI XqnSIl hY [ pUrn Aws hY ik gurbwxI pRymI guris`K, Aijhy mwnv ihqkwrI kwrj iv`c sihXogI bx ky ieMstIicaUt dy syvkW dI jrUr hOslw- A&zweI krngy